Monday, April 1, 2013

Hekate's Many Names (Part 1 of 3)

This has been long in the working... Several months ago I was asked by Sorita D'Este to research Hekate's Epithets, as many of those that are commonly listed are... well, detached from reality.

This initial post is a list of those Titles which have a clear history with Hekate. It is by far the longest list, with a diverse selection of sources. I have tried my best to clarify any confusion over translations. Highlighting indicates that I am unhappy with the evidence I have thus far found, even if it is a decent second or tertiary source.

If you have a better source for an Epithet, please let me know!

Part 2 will share epithets that while having history, have little to no connection to Hekate, but which seem appropriate to Her in some way.
Part 3 will be, perhaps, be the most difficult to accept, as it will be a list of those epithets that have no basis in reality.

The reason this is being shared here is so that I can continue to fine tune the list. So please, give voice to your own sources and the like.

A Thousand Lights for Hekate by Sara Croft (me), 2012

Epithets with  Historical Precedence (Epithet: Meaning: Source and Notes if Applicable) 

?: Subduer of All: Greek Magical Papyri Hymn IV 2714-83
?: Fawn-slayer: Hymn to Selene-Hekate-Artemis, Greek Magical Papyri IV 2714-83.
?: Greatest Overseer: Hymn to Selene-Hekate-Artemis, Greek Magical Papyri IV 2714-83.
?: Untamed: Hymn to Selene-Hekate-Artemis, Greek Magical Papyri IV 2714-83.
?: Who Pours Forth Arrows: Hymn to Selene-Hekate-Artemis, Greek Magical Papyri IV 2714-83.


Agriope : Wild-eyed, Fierce-faced, Savage-watcher, wild-voiced : A name associated with Eurydice, Orpheus' wife, likely came to be attached to Hekate when the two were conflated. From Orpheus and His Lute: Poetry and the Renewal of Life by Elisabeth Henry, SIU Press, 1992 p. 3. Also, Maass' Opheus, 1895.
Aktiophis: of unknown meaning: various hymns to Selene and Hekate in the Greek Magical Papyri.
Alexeatis: Averter of Evil:  A 5th c. BCE inscription to Enodia mentioned by Sarah Iles Johnston in Restless Dead.
Ameibousa: One that transforms: Oracle Table from Pergamon dedicated to Hekate. (Special thanks to Florian Schlie for the information.)
Amphiprosopos: Double-faced: The Chaldean Oracles, also Reading Plotinus: A Practical Introduction to Neoplatonism by Kevin Corrigan.
Anassa: Queen:  The Orphic Hymn to Hekate.
Angelos: Messenger: The Chaldean Oracles. Associated with numerous Gods. Karl Kerenyi discusses the shared role of Angelos between Hermes and Hekate in Hermes: Guide of Souls.
Aphrattos: Unnamed One:  In "Taranto" by Enzo Lippolis, Salvatore Garraffo, Massimo Nafissi by the Instituto per la Storia e l'Archeologia della Magna Grecia, 1995, p. 194-5.
Apotropaios: Averting, Averter: Supplementum epigraphicum Graecum (SEG) 42 1816.
Atala: Tender, delicate: Hesiod's Hymn to Demeter.
Atala Phroneousa: Gay-Spirited: The Homeric Hymn to Demeter. 
Azostos: Ungirt, without a belt: The Orphic Hymn to Hekate.

Basileia: Queen, Princess:  The Orphic Hymn to Hekate. Also, Farnell's Cults of the Greek States vol. 2, p. 507.
Borborophorba: Eater of Filth: Greek Magical Papyri, 1402, 1406.
Boukolos: Ox-Herder: The Orphic Hymn to Hekate.
Brimo: Angry One, The Terrifying, of Crackling Flames : Apollonios Rhodios 3.861-63, 1246. Also applied to Persephone, Demeter, and Cybele.


Chrysosandalos: of Golden Sandals:  The Hymn of Hekate-Erechkigal, Greek Magical Papyri LXX.
Chthonian: of the Earth: The Orphic Hymn to Hekate.


Dadophoros: Torchbearer:  Well-attested in sculpture and coins.
Daeira: The Knowing One, Teacher: A nymph and lover of Hermes who was sometimes conflated with Persephone and Hekate, according to the Perseus Project.
Despoina: Mistress:  An Arkadian Goddess of Fertility and daughter of Demeter. Identified with Persephone, Artemis, and Hekate.

Dione: The Goddess: Dione is a Goddess in her own right that came to be conflated with Hekate. From the Oracle Table of Pergamom. Source: Hekate die dunkle Gottin by Thomas Lautwein.


Eileithyia: nurse of Childbirth: Goddess of midwives, conflated with Artemis and Hekate.
Einalian: of the Sea: The Orphic Hymn to Hekate.
Empylios: at the Gate:  See the Orphic Argonautika 902, as well as an inscription in a museum associated with the Temple of Zeus in Nemea.
Enodia: of the Path:  Pausanias' Description of Greece 3.14.9,  Hippocrates Of Sacred Disease, and The Orphic Hymn to Hekate.
Ephodia:  travelling expenses... of uncertain appelation with Hekate.  Inscription in a museum associated with the Temple of Zeus in Nemea.
Epiphanestate Thea: the Most Manifest Goddess:  "The Priviledges of Free Nontributary States" by Sulla, 81 BCE.
Epipurgidia:  on the Tower: Pausanias's description of Athens.
Eukoline: Good tempered:  grave stele in Athens. Additionally Kallimachos refers to Hekate Eukoline. Additionally, could be applied to Eileithyia.
Eurippa: Horse-finder:  Robert Brown, Semitic Influence in Hellenic Mythology, Williams and Norgate, 1898.



Hecatoncheires : Hundred-handed:  The Chaldean Oracles
Hegemonen: Guide: The Orphic Hymn to Hekate.




Kleidoukhos: Keeper of the Keys: The Orphic Hymn to Hekate.
Kore: Maiden: The Orphic Hymn to Hekate.
Kourotrophos: Child's nurse, nurse of youths: The Orphic Hymn to Hekate. Shared with Artemis and Eilytheia.
Kratais: The Strong One, of the Rocks: Apollonius of Rhodes' Argonautika.
Krokopeplos: Saffron-cloaked: The Orphic Hymn to Hekate.


Laginitis: of Lagina, possibly: The city of Idrias had a temple to Hekate Laginitis. : See A History of Discoveries at Halicarnassus, Cnidus, and Branchidae, vol. 2 by Charles T. Newton, R.P. Pullan, 1863.
Lampadephoros: Lamp-bearer, torch-bearer, who warns of nighttime attack. : Associated with the Mysteries of Phrygia.  The Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia by William Ramsay.  Suidas describes a statue dedicated to Hekate the Torchbearer for saving the city of Byzantium from Philip of Macedon.
Leaina: the Lioness:  Porphyry, Fragmenta III, 18. See also Kraus' Hekate, p. 32-33.
Liparokredemnos: of the bright-headband, Bright-coiffed: The Homeric Hymn to Hekate.


Maera: Shining:  In Ovid's Metamorphoses connects the story of a woman Maera turned into a dog with Hekate.
Megiste: Greatest:  Sarah Iles Johnston mentions this Hellenistic Carian epithet in Restless Dead, p. 206.
Monogenes:  Only Child: Hesiod's Theogony, 11.404-452.
Munychia: of unknown meaning, possibly of the village Munychia. An epithet of Artemis associated with the Attic military port of the same name. See Women of Classical Mythology by Robert Bell, Oxford, p.312. Also Farnell, p. 473.


Nykteria: of the Night: The Orphic Hymn to Hekate.
Nykti: of the Night: From the Oracle Table of Pergamom. Source: Hekate die dunkle Gottin by Thomas Lautwein.
Nymphen: Bride: The Orphic Hymn to Hekate.


Opaon: Follower: The Homeric Hymn to Hekate. 
Ourania: Celestial, Heavenly: The Orphic Hymn to Hekate.
Ouresiphoites: Wanderer in the Mountains: the Orphic Hymn to Hekate. 


Pandina: possibly something about whirling or rotating, but largely unknown. : See The Numismatic Circular and Catalogue of Coins, Tokens, Commemorative and War Medals, Books and Cabinets, vol. 16, Spink & Son, 1908, p. 10308
Pantos Kosmou Kleidokhos: Keeper of Keys of the Kosmos: The Orphic Hymn to Hekate.
Parthenos: Virgin: The Chaldean Oracles.
Patrogenes: Father-begotten: The Chaldean Oracles.
Perseian: daughter of Perseus: The Orphic Hymn to Hekate.
Pheraea: of Pheraea, daughter of Zeus and Pheraea (daughter of Aeolus):
Phileremos: Lover of Solitude: The Orphic Hymn to Hekate.
Phoebe: Bright: From the Oracle Table of Pergamom. The epithet is also associated with Artemis and Apollo. Source: Hekate die dunkle Gottin by Thomas Lautwein.
Phoinikopeza: Ruddy-footed: Pindar's Paean 2. Also applied to Demeter.
Phosphoros: Light-bearer: Artemidoros. See also Euripides Helen, 569.
Phroune: She-toad:  JGR Forlong's Encyclopedia of Religions or Faiths of Man pt. 1 p. 269. This is also one of the sources of the idea that Hekate and Heqet might share common origins.
Physis: Nature: The Chaldean Oracles.
Prodomos: Of the Vestibule, literally Before the House: Aristophanes' Fragment 388.
Propolos: She Who Leads, Guide, Companion: see 's entry on the term Propolos.
Propylaia: One before the Gate:  See Tooke's Pantheon of the Heathen Gods and Illustrious Heroes by Francois Pomey, 1823, p. 178.
Prothyraea: Before the Gate: The Orphic Hymn to Prothyraea doesn't explicitly use Hekate's name, but carries many of Her traits, and  it uses the names of Diana and Eileithyia, both of who were conflated with Hekate.
Psychopompe: Soul-Guide:  a psychopomp is a class of beings with the responsibility of guiding souls into the afterlife, rather than an epithet. Hekate certainly qualifies.


Rexichthon: Earth-cleaver: Hymn to Selene-Hekate-Artemis, Greek Magical Papyri IV 2714-83.


Skotia: of the Dark, of the Gloom:  Diodorus I describes Hekate Scotia as worshiped in Egypt. The title was also associated with Aphrodite in Egypt.  The Day of Yahweh by William Arthur Heidel, 1929, p. 516.
Skylakitin: Lady of the Dogs: The Orphic Hymn to Hekate.
Soteira: Savior: see Hekate Soteira by Sarah Iles Johnston for a great exegesis. This epithet has been given to many different Gods and Goddesses.
Speirodrakontozonos: Girt in Serpent Coils: See Michael Italicus' Letter 17, as quoted in Stephen Ronan's The Goddess Hekate.


Tauropolos: Bull-herder: The Orphic Hymn to Hekate
Tergeminus: of Triple-Birth: An Elementary Latin Dictionary by Charlton T. Lewis, American Book Co. 1890.
Thea Deinos: The Dread Goddess: Apollonius Rhodius Argonautica 3.1194
Therobromon: Roaring like a Wild Beast, of the City of the Beast: The Orphic Hymn to Hekate.
Triaucheros: with Three Necks: Lycophron's Alexandra 1186.
Triceps: Three-formed: Ovid's Metamorphoses 7.194.
Trikephalos: Three-headed: numerous sources, coins, and statuary.
Trimorphos: Three-formed: numerous sources, coins, and statuary.
Trioditis: Of the Three Roads: Athenaeus.
Trivia: Of the Three Ways: The name for the Roman Goddess of the Three Roads.
Tymbidian: sepulchral: The Orphic Hymn to Hekate.







Zerynthia: of Mount Zerynthia: See Gimbutas' Old Europe, p. 197. Likely named after Zerynthos in Lagina.
Zonodrakontos: Covered in Snakes, Intertwined with snakes: The Chaldean Oracles.
Zootrophos: Nourisher of Life: The Chaldean Oracles.

Expect Part 2 sometime in the next few days. :)

ETA: Five Epithets were added, thanks to Florian Schlie! You are awesome, my friend. 

1 comment:

  1. Hi! Just wanted to say thank you for these posts. I also read Sorita d'Este's book and was inspired to weave some of the information into an urban fantasy book/series I'm writing... each title will be an epithet of Hecate... I love her and all her names :-)